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| , Education at Ptannfnj in n District by J. f. tftik 

2 . Institutional P[anriuiK byJ, P. Na& 

j. School Imp-ovcmcLH Projects and Community Support 
by jV_ D. S un daru radi v d u 

4 . Progrum tries oT Educational Imp rove mem 

ill the Diil riot Level by Si. V. Raja^tpul 

















19 S 9 - 70 








Ministry of Education 
And YnutFi Services 
Govt- of In din 

1 9 8 S 

Indian Programme 

State Seminars 

Educational Planning and Administration^ 

Educational Planning in a District 
(A Discussion Paper) 


J. P. Naik 


Ministry of Education and Youth Services 
Govt, of India 


pointed at The Crescent Printing Works, (P) Ltd., 
New Delhi- 


Educational Planning in a District : Some 

points for Discussion i y 

Educational Planning in a District : An 1—16 

Exposition 5 

I. Object of the Paper 1 

II. What will the District Plans Include 7 1 

III. Authority to Prepare District Plans 3 

IV. Data and Materials 5 

V. Location of Educational Institutions 6 

VI. Provision of Facilities in Educational Institutions 8 

VII. Non-teacher Costs ; Student Services 9 

VIII. Work-experience ; Social Services ; Programmes for 

Non-student Youth ; and Adult Education 10 

IX. Vocational Education and Employment 1 1 

X. Development of New Programmes 12 

XI. Some Special Problems 13 

XII. School Complexes and Institutional Plans 15 

XIII. Involvement of Teachers 15 

XIV. Evaluation 15 

Annexure A — The School Complex 17 

Annexure B — The Role of Teachers in Educational Planning and 

Development. 22 

Educational Planning in ;a District 


I. What is the role of district plans in a broad-based and decentralized 
system of educational planning (Paras 1-2) 

II. What is the scope of district plans ? 

To assist in better implementation of plains prepared at the State 
level ; 

To plan in those areas where choices exist and decisions can be 
taken at the district level and, in particular* in the following fields : 

(a) Provision of facilities; 

(b) Non-teacher costs; 

(c) Work-experience and social service; 

(d) Programmes for non-student youth or adult education; 

(e) Education below university level; 

(f) Intensive utilization of existing facilities; and 

(g) Education and employment. 

The scope of the district plans should be determined with reference 
to resources available and special needs and problems. What is 
important is successful implementation. It is better to have a 
modest plan and to implement it properly rather than to have an 
ambitious plan and to fail. (Paras 3-5) 

III. What should be the authority to prepare district plans ? It should 
be the highest education officer of the district (by whatever name 
called) who should undertake the task in consultation with all the 
local authorities in the district (who may have been associated with 
education). Suitable arrangements for their training and guidance 
will have to be made (Paras 6-8). 

IV. What is the data needed for educational planning at the district 
level ? This will have to be carefully adjusted to the scope of district 
plans and may include — 

(1) Educational statistics, especially the district statistics prescribed 
by the Ministry of Education; 

(2) Maps; 

(3) Data relating to physical facilities; and 

(4) Class-wise enrolments. 

(Paras 9-10) 

V. How should the locations of different categories of educational 
institutions be planned ? What, for instance, should be the guiding ^ 
criteria for planning the location of : — 

(1) Primary schools; 

(2) Secondary schools; 

(3) Vocational schools; and 

(4) Colleges. 

(Paras 11-15) 

VI. How should the provision of physical facilities be planned ? What 
arrangements can be made for their proper maintenance and for 
sharing of facilities ? How can community support be enlisted for 
provision of physical facilities ? (Paras 16-17) 

VII. How should non-teacher costs, especially student services, be 
planned ? How can community support be obtained for these 
programmes ? (Paras 18-23) 

VIII. How can programmes of work-experience, social service and adult 
education be planned ? What programmes for non-student youth 
can the educational institutions develop ? (Paras 24-26) 

IX. How can attempts be made, through district plans, to relate educa- 
tion to employment ? (Para 27). 

X. How can experimentation, elasticity and dynamism be promoted 
through district and institutional plans ? (Para 28) 

XI. What is the role of the district plans in matters falling within the 
scope of the state plans ? How can district and state level plans 
be properly integrated ? (Paras 29-34). 

XII. What are the institutional arrangements and supports needed for 
proper implementation of district plans ? The scheme of school 
complexes or school and college complexes recommended by the 
Education Commission can be of considerable use in this respect. 
Similarly, the institutional plans can give a strong support, to the 
implementation of the district plans (Paras 35-36). 

XIII. How can teachers be involved in the formulation and implementa- 
tion of district plans ? (Para 37) 

XIV. What measures should be taken to evaluate and modify district 
plans from time to time ? (Para 38) 

Educational Planning in a District : 

An Exposition 



1. Educational planning has to be done, in a coordinated fashion, at 
four levels at each of which important decisions are taken : National, State, 
district and institution. But at present, educational planning is done only 
at the national and state levels. It is therefore necessary to evolve the 
essential techniques and to initiate a process of planning at district and insti- 
tutional levels. The problem of institutional planning has been dealt with in 
a separate paper earlier. The object of this Paper is therefore to deal with 
district planning only. 

2. It may be pointed out that the idea of district planning is not quite 
new. Planning at the district level in all sectors, and especially in education, 
has been advocated for some time past. But very few district plans have been 
prepared in practice and even the theoretical aspects of the problem have not 
been examined adequately. It is therefore proposed, in this Paper, to make 
some concrete suggestions on the basis of which realistic district plans may 
be prepared and implemented. It is hoped that this will facilitate the 
initiation of the programme. 



3. In our educational system, certain matters are decided by the State 
Government and have to be uniform for the State as a whole, e . g., salaries 
of teachers or curriculum. Obviously, there is little scope for planning in 
these fields at the district level and all that district plans can hope to do is to 
help in the better implementation of these programmes. District-level plann- 
ing would, therefore, be mainly confined to those areas of educational activity 
where variations are permissible from district to district. 

4. What will be the programmes to be included in the district plans as 
the basis of this criteria ? The following educational programmes may be 
suggested in this context : 



(1) Provision of facilities in educational institutions : These will include 
buildings, laboratories, libraries, craft-sheds, school farms, play- 
grounds, teaching and learning materials, equipment and facilities 
required for games and sports and similar co-curricular activities. 

(2) Non-teacher costs : Recurring expenditure other than salaries of 
teachers also lends itself to planning at the district or institutional 
levels. In particular, such expenditure includes provision of essen- 
tial student services like free textbooks, school uniforms, school 
meals, subsidised or free transport, etc. 

(3) Work-experience and social service : Programmes for the develop- 
ment of work-experience or social service need a close integration 
qetween the school and the community, a mobilisation of community 
resources and support for these programmes and their utilisation for 
meeting the felt and urgent needs of the community. These pro- 
grammes are, therefore, better planned at the district and institu- 
tional levels. 

(4) Programmes for non-student youth or adult education : The utilisa- 
tion of the resources of educational institutions is very often 
possible for developing programme of adult education or services 
for a non-student youth and leads to both economy and efficiency. 
This planning which requires emphasis on local interest, local initia- 
tive and local support is also better done at the district and institu- 
tional level. 

(5) Levels of education : If the different levels of education are to be 
taken into consideration, planning at the district level is feasible 
and efficient for all education below the university level — pre-primary, 
primary, secondary and vocational. Planning at the university level 
in generel is best done at the state level, although the district plans 
have a useful contribution to make in determining the appropriate 
location for colleges. 

(6) Utilisation of existing facilities : Another aspect of planning at the 
district level which needs special attention is the utilisation of 
existing facilities. For instance, problems of unutilised buildings, 
classes run with less than optimum enrolment, equipment which is 
lying idle for a good deal of the time or rarely used, building up a 
proper relationship between the school and the community to the 
maximum advantage of both, sharing of rarer and most costly 
educational facilities and equipment etc. can best be dealt with and 
solved through planning at the district and institution levels. 

(7) education and employment : Finally, district plans can be a very 
useful instrument for matching education with employment. They 
can make a very useful contribution through studies of the man- 
power requirement or employment opportunities in the district and 
relating them to the planning of vocational education at the school 

5. It is not necessary to take up all these aspects of planning while 
preparing the first district plans. It may be desirable to prepare, in the first 
instance, a less ambitious but practicable plan, implement it successfully and 
then widen the scope of planning and bring in other educational parameters 
into consideration. It is, therefore, suggested that it should be a responsi- 
bility of the Director of Education in the State to guide the District Officers 
in this regard. After discussing the problem with them, the resources that 
could be raised locally and the special needs and problems of the district 
concerned, the Director of Education should help the District Inspector to 
decide the scope of his first educational plan for the district and the educa- 
tional parameters it should include. In all such matters, it is better to 
remember the rather unusual motto : It is not low aim but failure that is a 
crime”. A modest plan, carefully prepared and well implemented, is to be 
preferred to an ambitious plan, ill-prepared and badly implemented. 



6. Machinery for Planning : There are large variations at present, from 
state to State, in the roles assigned to local bodie in education. In urban areas 
for instance, municipalities have been associated with education in Andhra 
Pradesh (Andhra area only), Bihar, Gujarat (Bombay area only), Madhya 
Pradesh (Maha Kaushal area only), Madras (old Madras State area only), 
Maharashtra (excepting the Marathwada area), and Orissa (old Orissa 
Province area only). In the rural areas, the Panchayati Raj institutions have 
been introduced and placed in charge of education in all States except Jammu 
and Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore, Nagaland and Punjab. The 
method of association is also not uniform. The municipalities are generally 
in charge of primary education, but they can also undertake other educational 
activities at their discretion. The Panchayati Raj institutions have been 
entrusted with lower primary education in some States (e. g.. West Bengal), 
with the whole of primary education in some others (Madras), and with both 
primary and secondary education in two States (Andhra Pradesh and 
Maharashtra). Authority over education has been delegated to the block 
level in some States (c. g., Rajasthan and Madras) and to the district level in 
some others (Maharashtra). Under this bewildering variety, it is obvious that 


the authority which will take responsibility for planning at the district level, 
as well as the procedures adopted, will have to be made to suit the local 

7. The following broad suggestions can, however, be made: 

(1) In States like Kerala or Punjab, where neither the Municipalities 
nor the Panchayati Raj institutions have any responsibilities in 
education, the problem assumes the simplest form. Here the jpitia- 
tive and responsibility in district planning will have to be taken by 
the top education officer in the district, by whatever name he be 
called ( e . g., the District Education Officer or the District Inspector). 
It is, however, suggested that the State Governments may consider 
the desirability of creating an ad hoc Advisory Committee for educa- 
tional planning in the district. The District Officer should be able 
to consult it in formulating and finalising his proposals. 

(2) In States where local authorities have been entrusted with various 
categories of educational responsibility it would still be desirable to 
nominate a senior officer of the State Education Department, func- 
tioning at the district level to take initiative and responsibility for 
preparing the district educational plan. He will have naturally to 
consult in their respective fields, the different local authorities within 
the district who have some educational responsibilities. In such 
instances, therefore, the planning process will become more compli- 
cated and also a little dilatory because of the consultations involved 
with a number of local authorities. But the plans would also be 
richer because they will reflect, to a much greater extent, popular 
aspirations and demands. In all such cases also, it may be advisable 
to create an ad hoc Planning Committee at the district level on which 
the relevant local authorities having educational responsibility with- 
in the district would be properly represented and which the District 
Planning Officer may consult in formulating and finalising his plans. 

8. Training and Guidance : It is also necessary to provide guidance to 
the District Officers who would be required to prepare educational plans. 
This guidance will be of two types. Firstly, it will include a preliminary 
orientation into the methodology of planning provided by a central organisa- 
tion at the State level; and secondly, it will involve guidance in the solution 
of problems as they arise from time to time while the plans are being formula- 
ted. It will be necessary to create a suitable agency within the State 
Education Department to discharge both these functions. It is sugges- 
ted that this may be the State Institute of Education which should give the 


preliminary orientation to all District Officers in the preparation of these 
plans and also provide a continuous extension service to them until the plans 
are all ready. The District Officers, in their turn, will have to give a brief 
orientation to all their subordinate inspecting and administrative officers with 
whose cooperation alone can these plans be formulated. 



9. The next problem relates to the data and materials to be collected. 
In this context, the following suggestions have been made : — 

(1) Educational statistics : The first step in the programme is to collect 
the relevant educational statistics. The Ministry of Education has 
prescribed a form for collection of district educational statistics— 
Form A-2. This was first introduced in the year 1964-65 and, in 
most States, data in this form is available for 1964-65 as well as 
1965-66. Steps may be taken to fill the data for 1968-69 also. 
This will give comparable figures over a four-year period and there- 
by indicate the trends of development which are very useful in 

The Ministry of Education has also collected and published detail- 
ed educational statistics in the districts for the year 1960-61. These 
are now being collected for 1965-66. In some States, these statistics , 
are available also for earlier years. For instance, in Maharashtra, 
they are available from 1950-51; in Andhra from 1957-58; etc. With 
a little special effort, these statistics could also be collected for 
1968-69. These statistics give all the data that is needed for educa- 
tional planning in the district, including trends of development 
under a large number of categories. 

(2) Maps : Since an important part of planning is the proper location 
of educational institutions of different categories, it will be necessary 
to have carefully prepared maps for each block or tehsil or taluk 
in the district. These maps should show the existing location of 
educational institutions of different categories and the areas served 
by them. For convenience of planning and reference, it may be 
desirable to prepare separate maps for each category or a group of 
categories of institutions, e.g., there may be a map showing location 
of primary schools only or a map showing the location of primary, 
middle and secondary schools, etc, 


(3) Data relating to physical facilities and equipment : Since an important 
part of the district plan will be to ensure the proper provision of 
physical facilities and equipment in educational institutions of all 
categories, it would be necessary to have detailed information, ins- 
titution by institution, of the facilities and equipment that already 
exist and the additional things which are needed. This data will 
also be of use in preparing plans for sharing of equipment between 
neighbouring educational institutions. 

(4) Class-wise enrolments : Since an important part of the district plan 
is to adjust staff to enrolments, to cut down over-sized classes and 
to fill additional enrolments in under-sized classes, it would be 
desirable to collect information, separately for each educational 
institution, giving class-wise enrolments and essential details of staff. 
Similarly, details of enrolment of girls and of children of scheduled 
castes and tribes, class by class and institution by institution, would 
also be necessary. 

10. Adjustment of Data to the Scope of Plans : The data indicated 
above is comprehensive and will cover most objectives of district plans. In 
practice, however, not all this 'data need be collected for every plan and for 
some plans, even data not included here may be needed. An exercise to 
adjust the data to the objectives will therefore have to be made. Once the 
scope of the district plan is decided as suggested in para 3 earlier. On the 
basis of the indications given above, there should however not be much 
difficulty in determining what this data should be, how much of it is 
already available and what will have to be collected afresh. The necessary 
proformae should then be designed, printed and circulated to all educational 
institutions in the district and the data collected as quickly as possible. 
The relevant proformae for tabulation should also be designed and 
statistical tables prepared separately for each block or taluk or tehsil 
in the district and then consolidated for the district as a whole. 



11. We shall now indicate briefly how the planning of individual 
sectors of educational activities included in the district plans should be 
carried out. The discussion may well begin with the problem of the location 
of educational institutions. 

12. Location of Primary ( Lower and Higher) and General Secondary 
Schools : The largest number of educational institutions in the district would 


be lower primary, higher primary and secondary (high and higher) schools. 
The proper planning of their location should be regarded as an important 
aspect of planning at the district level. Since resources are very often wasted 
through the establishment of educational institutions which duplicate or 
overlap the efforts of one another, it may be desirable to include this aspect 
of planning in every district plan. 

13. To determine the location of primary and secondary schools, it is 
necessary to lay down the criteria for the purpose. The Education Commis- 
sion has suggested the following 

(1) A lower primary school teaching classes I-IV should be available 
within one mile from the home of every child. 

(2) A higher primary school teaching classes I-VII should be available 
within three miles of the walking distance from the home of every 

(3) A secondary school teaching classes VUI-X should be available 
within five to seven miles from the home of every child. 

(4) A higher secondary school should be available for a group of 
about four high schools. 

(5) A college should be so located that it will within five years of its 
establishment, be economic, i.e., have an enrolment of at least 400 
or more. 

These are only broad indications and the actual criteria will have to be 
defined in greater detail, in view of local conditions. It should be the res- 
ponsibility of the State Government to broadly indicate the criteria to be 
adopted for the location of these and other categories of institutions. These 
would then be adopted to the local conditions in the district by the District 
Officers concerned under the general guidance of the Director of Education. 

14. It would be desirable to show the existing and proposed educational 
institutions of different categories on block and district maps. These will 
show, very clearly, how the entire area is served by a minimum number of 
educational institutions each of which will tend to be economic and efficient 
and how overlapping and duplication has been avoided. The relevant Tables 
showing the position in the district before and after planning for each different 
category of educational institutions could also be prepared with advantage 
on the broad lines indicated in the first Educational Survey (1959). 


15. Location of Vocational Schools : The location of vocational schools 
of various types — agricultural or industrial — can also be done advantageously 
on a district basis. This will need a close correlation between the plans of 
economic development of the district along with educational development 



16. The next important item in which planning at the district or institu- 
tional level would be effective is the provision of facilities in educational 
institutions such as buildings, laboratories, libraries, craft-sheds, school-farms, 
playgrounds, teaching and learning materials, equipment and facilities 
required for games and sports and similar co-curricular activities. In this 
context, the first step will be to get full data about existing conditions, 
institution by institution, and to make a fairly rough inventory of the needs 
of each institution. For this purpose, the Education Department may have 
to prepare some norms of the facilities which should ordinarily be provided 
in educational institutions of a given category. This should be realistic and 
practicable and tuned to the present conditions. The norms may, and in fact 
should, be revised and upgraded every five years. On the basis of these 
norms, each institution can decide what it has and what it needs to have. An 
effort could then be made to improve the situation in every institution in one 
or other of the following ways : — 

(1) By organising school improvement conferences in which local com- 
munity provides the necessary physical facilities as is being done in 
Tamil Nadu State; 

(2) By providing granls-in-aid, on a shared basis, to local communities 
to improve the existing facilities in their institutions; 

(3) By developing programmes for local manufacture of materials and 
equipment so that the costs are considerably reduced; 

(4) By devising programmes where facilities would be shared by groups 
of educational institutions in common; and 

(5) By raising voluntary contributions from the local communities or 
local cesses at the block or district levels or both, and by levying 
betterment funds in secondary schools for strengthening existing 
services or providing new ones. 

1?. dne aspect which is generally neglected is the proper maintenance 
of premises and equipment in educational institutions. Buildings, even if 
well constructed, are often badly maintained. No effort is generally made 
to provide a school garden. The sanitary facilities, in most cases, are non- 
existent (this is especially so in rural areas). One of the progr amme to be 
especially emphasised in planning of educational facilities at the district level 
is not only to ensure that the necessary facilities and equipment are provided, 
but to ensure that they are properly maintained and fully utilised. In this 
area, it is possible to introduce the idea of work-experience and involve 
teachers and students in the proper maintenance of the school plant. Apart 
from the obvious advantages of economy and efficiency, the programme will 
have sound educational advantages. 



18. The programmes described in paragraphs 18 and 19 are mostly 
concerned with non-recurring expenditure. The usual experience is that 
popular contributions can be more easily raised for non-recurring expendi- 
ture than for recurring one : a village, for instance, may raise a contribution 
of Rs. 10,000 for a school building but may not be willing to pay even 
Rs. 100 per year towards its maintenance. These programmes are, therefore, 
comparatively easier to plan with the help of voluntary contributions of the 
local community which can also be stimulated through grants-in-aid on a 
sharing basis. 

19. As an integral part of the district planning technique, however, 
it is necessary to gradually bring in the local community to share some part 
at least, of the recurring expenditure of the schools or other educational 
institutions. From this point of view, it is customary to divide the expendi- 
ture of an educational institution into two parts. The first part is that of 
teacher costs which include salaries of teachers, their allowances, retirement 
benefits, etc. These usually fall about 80 percent (or even more) of the 
total expenditure of an educational institution and it may not be possible to 
introduce any sharing element in it. The other items of expenditure are 
generally known as non-teacher costs and it is with regard to them that some 
sharing arrangement with the local community is possible and desirable. 

20. At the primary stage, for instance, where fees are not charged, the 
assistance of the local community may be enlisted for support of the following 
programmes among others 

(1) Maintenance of the school building and premise? ; 

(2) Provision and maintenance of the school garden ; 

(3) Provision and maintenance of the play-grounds ; 

(4) Provision of a school farm ; 

(5) Provision and maintenance of equipment ; 

(6) Free supply of textbooks to poor and needy children ; 

(7) School meals ; 

(8) Provision of school uniform ; 

(9) Organisation of co-curricular activities like school social functions, 
celebration of festivals, excursions, school dramatics, etc. 

21. The local support for these activities can be raised through volun- 
tary contributions of the people and through contributions of the local 
village panchayats. Both these sources could be stimulated through a 
proper use of grants-in-aid from the district or state level. 

22. At the secondary stage, it is possible to provide local community’s 
support for similar programmes, either by raising voluntary contributions 
from the community or by levy of development fees. 

23. The extent to which the local support will be available for pro- 
grammes of the above type will vary from place to place. Institutional plans 
will, therefore, be of great use to secure the maximum support possible in a 
given local community. Besides, it should be a definite objective of the 
district plan to ensure that every local community stretches itself to the 
maximum to support its school programmes for the non-teacher costs 
indicated above. 




24. The first responsibility of an educational institution is obviously to 
its students and its resources, both human and material, have to be used, 
in the first instance, to meet the needs of its student population. But it is 
possible, by careful planning, to utilise these resources also for service to the 
local community, for non-student youth or even for adults. This is 

especially necessary in a developing country where resources available for 
education are extremely limited. It should, therefore, be an objective of the 
district plans :■ — 

(1) To strive to bring the school and the community together in pro- 
grammes of mutual service and support. (An emphasis on 
developing, in the schools, some programmes which will meet the 
felt . and urgent needs of the community will naturally result in' 
securing better community support to schools). 

(2) To develop programmes where educational institutions would try 
to provide some services — in education, games and sports, recreation 
and guidance — to non-student youth in the locality most of whom 
would have been its past students ; and 

(3) To develop programmes of adult education, especially liquidation of 
adult illiteracy. 

25. Obviously, it will not be possible to develop programmes of this 
type in all educational institutions or localities at once. A beginning should, 
therefore, be made in a few selected localities or institutions where the 
necessary leadership and atmosphere is available and the programme should 
be gradually extended to other institutions. From the long term point of 
view, this is a very important programme to be included in the district 

26. In programmes of this type, it is necessary to maintain quality so 
that the programmes are likely to defeat their own objectives. What is, 
therefore important is that a beginning, however small, should be made in this 
direction as early as possible in a few selected centres and the progr amm e 
should be expanded as experience is gained and larger resources become 
available, always taking care to see that the quality of the programme is not 
allowed to suffer. 



27. District plans have a great potential to conduct useful experimenta 
work in relating education meaningfully to employment. On the basis of the 
development programmes prepared for the districts, it is possible to make 


some estimate of the categories and the numbers of the trained personnel 
required for the developmental programmes under implementation. On this 
basis, it should then be possible to plan the content of the vocatio nal courses, 
the organisation of vocational education in institutions and/or industries’ 
agriculture and their location. It may not, therefore, be possible to tackle 
this aspect of district planning in every district. The first experiment in this 
direction has been undertaken by the Government of Maharashtra in the 
Osmanabad District, the detailed literature on which is available. It may be 
worthwhile to select one or two districts in every State and to develop similar 
programmes in them. The extension of these programmes to other districts 
may be taken up in the light of the experience gained in these pilot 



28. Yet another aspect of planning of education at the district level is 
to introduce an element of experimentation in the educational system and to 
try out new ideas. One of the major weaknesses of the existing educational 
system is its rigidity and uniformity which arises mostly from centralised 
administration operated from the State level. If the element of elasticity and 
dynamism is to be introduced, the centre of gravity in adminisration will 
have to be shifted to district level. The District Officer should encourage 
initiative, freedom and experimentation on the part of the schools, try to 
cross fertilize experience by bringing the good work done in an educational 
institution to the notice of others and facilitate the generation of new ideas. 
He may also undertake experimentation in improvement of supervision and in 
organising programmes for professional advancement of teachers. In short, 
it should be regarded as a responsibility of the District Officer to emphasize 
those programmes of qualitative improvement which require human effort 
rather than investment in monetary and physical terms and strive, through 
better utilisation of existing facilities, improved techniques of planning and 
deeper involvement of the teachers, students and local community to improve 
the standards in education to the best extent possible at any given level of 
the inputs of physical and monetary investment. A proper orientation of all 
inspecting officers, headmasters and teachers from the point of view of these 
programmes and a sustained attempt to initiate, implement and periodically 
evaluate this programme should be regarded as a very important part of -all 
district plans. 



29. An important question relates to items which are usually dealt 
with in state plans : What is the precise role of the district plans in this 

30. There is obvious need for a continuous interplay between the 
state, district and institutional plans. The state plan should, in the first 
instance, give broad indications for the formulation of the district plans 
as the district plans should give the broad indications for the formulation 
of the institutional plans. But when the institutional plans are actually 
framed they may modify, to some extent, the original outlines indicated at 
the district level; and the district plans, when actually formulated, may 
also indicate some modifications of the original guidelines given from the 
state level. This continuous inter-play, the travelling of ideas up and down 
between the state to the institutional levels, is an important feature of the 
planning process; and the success of the whole programme will largely depend 
upon its elesticity and dynamism. 

31. The problem can be clarified with reference to one item, say, 
additional enrolment. For instance, the first exercise in determining the 
additional enrolment likely to be made at any given stage in the plan period, 
the policy to be adopted in this regard (e.g., go slow, special drives, status 
quo, etc.), the financial or other provisions needed to meet it should first be 
decided, on a tentative basis, at the State level and some guide-lines on the 
subject should be developed. It is essential to carry out this exercise at 
the state level because the programme has large financial implications which 
can only be met by the State. But once this tentative outline is ready, it can 
be sent to the districts which can discuss it with the institutions and offer their 
suggestions regarding practicability and suitability of these proposals and 
their application to their own area. In the light of these comments, the 
State level authorities can take a final decision which can then be implemented 
By the districts and institutions after making, within the limits permitted, 
such changes as may be necessary to adopt the proposals to their own special 
conditions (e.g., in some areas of high enrolments, one may go slow. While, 
at the same time, special measures will have to be taken in areas where they 
are low). 

32. All matters included in educational plans will be subject to such 
interplay between state, district and institutional levels to some extent at 
least. But in matters discussed earlier as falling within the scope of the 

district plans, the State level authorities will be broadly concerned with 
general policies while detailed planning and implementation will be left to 
the district and institutional levels. On the other hand, in matters essenti- 
ally falling within the scope of the state level plans, the basic decisions 
will be taken at the state level and the district and institutional plans will 
programme the decisions in the light of local conditions and implement them. 

33. By and large, the scope of the State level plans will include;- 

(1) Additional enrolments; 

(2) Opening of new institutions; 

(3) Major modifications in curricula and courses; 

(4) Organisation of major programmes of teacher education; 

(5) Restructuring educational administration; 

(6) All programmes beyond school education; and 

(7) Generally, all major programmes of educational reconstruction and 
all questions of policy. 

In each of these matters, the district plans ''have a supplementary 
role to play. For instance, with regard to the first two of these, v/z., the 
opening of new institutions and additional enrolments, the district 
authorities, through their plans, can do the following amongst others : — 

(1) They can keep a watch on over-sized classes and make an attempt 
to reduce their numbers as soon as practicable; 

(2) They can also keep an equally careful watch on under-sized classes 
and see that enrolments are increased in such classes with a view 
to better utilisation of existing facilities; 

(3) They can focus attention on improving the enrolment of girls and 
of children from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and 
weaker sections of the community like landless agricultural 

Since provision of equality of educational opportunities is a major 
objective of educational planning, it is hardly necessary to emphasize the 
importance of these aspects of the problem. 

34. Similar suggestions can be made for other programmes as well. 
A#hat is essential to remember is that, in matters falling within the scope 
of the state plans, the responsibility of the district and institutional plans is 
to improve programming, assist in economical and effective use of resources 
available and improve implementation. 



35. In order to achieve the best results in educational development 
through the adoption of a decentralised system of planning, the Education 
Commission has recommended the adoption of the system of the ‘school 
complexes'. Under this programme, a secondary school is taken as a 
centre and a school complex is formed with this school and all the primary 
schools within its neighbourhood. Similarly a college may be taken as a 
centre and a complex at a higher level may be formed with this institution 
and the secondary schools in its neighbourhood. Such complexes enable 
teachers at all levels to come together and to help one another in raising 
standards. It should, therefore, be an integral part of the district plans to 
decide upon the school complexes which the district will ultimately have. 
Not all complexes need be started immediately, a beginning may be made 
with a few complexes where the necessary leadership is available and the 
programme extended to other complexes as experience and resources 
become available. A summary of the recommendations of the Education 
Commission on this subject is given in the Annexure I for convenience of 

36. Just as a State plan is supported by district plans, the district 
plan itself would be supported, in its turn, by institutional plans. It should 
therefore, be an important and integral programme of the district plans to 
promote the formulation and implementation of institutional plans. This 
subject however is dealt with in a separate brochure, 



37. It is necessary to involve teachers of all categories intimately and 
effectively in the formulation and implementation of institutional and 
district plans. The greater their involvement, the better are the chances of 
success. Appropriate techniques for such involvement will, therefore, have 
to be devised. This may vary, to some extent, from district to district to 
suit local conditions. 



38. It is necessary to provide for evaluation of district educational plans 
from time to time. There should be a system under which the progress made 


in the implementation of the district plans should he reviewed annually in 
consultation with the representatives of the public, at the block and district 
levels. There should also be reviews by professional organisations of 
teachers, by groups of headmasters and by departmental officers in the 
district. On the basis of these reviews, a comprehensive review should be 
prepared by the District Officer. Modifications in the plans as indicated 
by these reviews from time to time should also be carried out. 



2.50. The School Complex : What was stated above for the relation- 
ship between universities, colleges and secondary schools, could be easily 
extended further to secondary and primary schools. There are about 26,000 
secondary schools at the beginning of the Fourth Plan and about 14,000 of 
these are in rural areas. In addition, the rural areas have about 65,000 
higher primary schools and about 3,60,000 lower primary schools. In other 
words, in a rual area having a radius of five to ten miles, there will be about 
one secondary school, five higher primary schools and 28 lower 
primary schools. The total number of teachers may be about 80 to 100 
This is a fairly small and manageable group which can function in 
a face-to-face relationship within easily accessible distance. It has also a great 
potential for planning and guidance, since there will be at least five or six 
trained graduates in the group. Moreover, it is possible to provide new aids 
like a projector, a good library, a good laboratory in each secondary school as 
a unit and make them functionally available to all the schools in the area. 
This group built round a secondary school should, in our opinion, be adopted 
as the minimum viable unit of educational reform and developed accordingly, 

2.51. The linking of secondary and primary schools under this pro- 
gramme can be done in two tiers. In the first tier, each higher primary 
school should be integrally related to the eight to ten lower primary schools 
that exist in its neighbourhood so that they form one ‘complex’ of educa- 
tional facilities. The headmaster of the higher primary school should provide 
an extension service to the lower primary schools in his charge, and it will 
be his responsibility to see that they function properly. For this purpose, 
there would be a committee under his chairmanship (of which the headmaster 
of every lower primary school in his area would be a member) which would 
be responsible for planning and developing all the schools as a single 
‘complex’. The second tier would be a committee under the chairmanship 
of the headmaster of the secondary school (all headmasters of the higher and 
lower primary schools in the area being members) which will plan the work 
and give guidance to all the schools in the area in the light of which each 
higher primary school complex (with its associated lower primary schools) 


would carry on its work. This group of schools and teachers can be given a 
good deal of freedom to develop their own programmes, subject to general 
guidance of the inspecting staff. It should also be requested to coordinate 
its work with the local committee and to derive as much help from this source 
as possible. 

2.52. Such an organization will have several advantages in helping to 
promote educational advance. It will break the terrible isolation under which 
each school functions at present. It will enable a small group of schools 
working in a neighbourhood to make a co-operative effort to improve stan- 
dards. It will enable the Education Department to devolve authority with 
comparatively less fear of its being misused and provide the necessary stock 
of talent at the functional level to make use of this freedom. 

10.39. The School Complex ; The idea of the school complex or the 
manner in which a high school, about three or four higher primary schools 
and 10 to 20 lower primary schools in the neighbourhood would be integrally 
linked together, has been described earlier. We shall now proceed to discuss 
how the school complexes should function as a part of the new supervision 
we are proposing. As explained earlier, the objectives of introducing the 
school complex will be two : to break the isolation of schools and help them 
to function in small, face-to-face, cooperative groups; and to make a delega- 
tion of authority from the Department possible. As we visualize the picture, 
the District Educational Officer will be mainly in touch with each school 
complex and as far as possible* deal with each school complex and as far as 
possible, deal with it as a unit. The complex itself will perform certain 
delegated tasks which would otherwise have been performed by the inspect- 
ing officers of the Department, and deal with the individual schools within it. 
Under this programme, the schools will gain in strength, will be able to 
exercise greater freedom and will help in making the system more elastic and 
dynamic. The Department will also gain — it will be able to concentrate its 
attention on major essentials and can afford to have fewer officers but at a 
higher level of competence. 

10.40. How will the school complex function ? If the system is to be 
effective, adequate powers and responsibilities will have to be delegated to the 
complex. These may include the following : 

(1) The school complex may be used as a unit for the introduction of 
better methods of evaluation and for regulating the promotion of 
children from class to class or from one level of school to another. 


(2) As stated earlier, it is possible to provide certain facilities and 
equipment, which cannot be provided separately to each school, 
jointly for all the schools in a complex. This will include a projec- 
tor with portable generator which can go round from school to 
school. Similarly, the central high school may have a good labora- 
tory and students from the primary schools in the complex may be 
brought to it during the vacation or holidays for practical work or 
demonstration. The central high school 'may maintain a circulat- 
ing library from which books could be sent out to schools in the 
neighbourhood. The facilities of special teachers could also be 
shared. For instance, it is not possible to appoint separate teachers 
for physical education or for art work in primary schools. But such 
teachers are appointed on the staff of secondary schools; and it 
should be possible, by a carefully planned arrangement, to make 
use of their services to guide the teachers in primary schools and 
also to spend some time with their students. 

(3) The in-service education of teachers in general, and the upgrading 
of the less qualified teachers in particular, should be an important 
responsibility of the school complex. For this purpose it should 
maintain a central circulating library for the use of teachers.. It 
should arrange periodical meetings of all the teachers in the complex, 
say, once a month, where discussions on school problems could be 
had, some talks or film shows arranged, or some demonstration 
lessons given. During the vacations, even short special courses can 
be organized for groups of teachers. 

(4) Each school should be ordinarily expected to plan its work in 
sufficient detail for the ensuing academic year. Such planning could 
preferably be done by the headmasters of the schools within the 
complex. They should meet together and decide on broad principles 
of development in the light of which each individual school can 
plan its own programme. 

(5) It is very difficult to provide leave substitutes for teachers in primary 
schools, because the size of each school is so small that no leave 
reserve teacher can be appointed. This becomes particularly difficult 
in single-teacher schools where, if the teacher is on leave, the school 
has to remain closed. In the school complex concept, it will be 
possible to attach one or two leave reserve teachers to the central 
secondary school; and they can be sent to schools within the com- 
plex as and When the need arises, 


( 6 ) Selected school complexes can be used for trying out and evaluating 
new textbooks, teachers’ guides and teaching aids. 

(7) The school complex may also be authorised to modify, within pres- 
cribed limits, and subject to the approval of the District Educational 
Officer, the usual prescribed curricula and syllabuses. 

10.41. It is obvious that this idea of the school complex will have to be 
preceded by the careful preparation and orientation of teachers. We recom- 
mend that the scheme should be first introduced in a few selected districts in 
each State as a pilot project. When a district is selected for the purpose, the 
necessary literature regarding the scheme should be prepared in the regional 
languages and distributed to all the schools and teachers in the district as the 
first step in the programme. The plan should then be discussed in all its 
details in group meetings of all teachers and headmasters within the district 
— these can be conveniently arranged by each inspecting officer for his own 
beat. In the light of the discussions, the plan may be modified and a final 
decision taken. Secondly, not all powers should be conferred on each school 
complex within the district simultaneously. A minimum of powers should 
be conferred to begin with. Where good work is shown — as will be done in 
many complexes — additional powers may be delegated. On the other hand, 
if for some reason or the other the complex does not function properly — and 
some are bound to create difficulties — it may even be desirable and necessary 
to withdraw the powers. Given proper leadership on the part of the District 
Education Officer and his staff and persistent effort, the scheme is bound to 

10.42. The great advantages of the school complex are obvious. But 
like all human things, it has its dangers also. If the dominant headmasters 
in any unit happen to be thorough-going educational conservatives, the 
imaginative classroom teacher may find himself less able to experiment under 
the system of school complex than he is at present. This is a risk that must 
be run. It will be for the District Educational Officer (if he is not also a 
thorough-going conservative) to throw his influence in favour of a more 
liberal policy. It must also be remembered that the kinds of group reform 
that will get the blessing and support of a committee of headmasters will 
tend to be more stale and conservative than those that might be generated by 
an adventurous individual or single school. The Education Department 
must, therefore, make it amply clear that the purpose of the school complex 
scheme is not just to encourage a unit to experiment en bloc but also to foster 
individual experimentation within the unit, 


10.43. It is also necessary to note that the proposal involves additional 
expenditure. For instance, we expect the headmasters and teachers of the 
high schools to visit the higher primary schools in the neighbourhood on an 
average, say, of once a month, and some lower primary schools in the same 
manner. We also expect that similar visits would be paid by the headmasters 
of the higher primary schools to the lower primary schools in the neighbour- 
hood. Some payment will have to be made on this account. The programmes 
of in-service education we have suggested will also involve expenditure. If 
the students of the primary schools are to be taught science in the high school 
laboratory during vacations, some payment will have to be ma^r to the 
teachers concerned. But the scale of this expenditure will not be large and it 
will yield good results. 

(Extracts from the Report of the Education Commission, Paras 2.50 to 
2.52 and 10.39 to 10.43) 




We now have experience of three Five-Year Plans and three Annual 
Plans From the point of view of teachers, it may be said that they have 
never been actively involved so far in the formulation and implementation 
of any of these plans. All the plans of these eighteen years were prepared at 
the state and national levels so that the agencies primarily involved in their 
preparation and implementation were the Planning Commission, the 
Ministry of Education, the Education Departments in the Secretariats of the 
State Governments and the Directorates of Education in the States. It is 
true that the universities have been preparing their own plans under the 
general guidance and assistance of the University Grants Commission. But 
barring this solitary exception, no educational institutions or their teachers 
were ever intimately associated with the formulation and implementation 
of plans. The average college, for instance, has hardly been involved in 
the process. The secondary and primary schools were not involved at all 
and were even ignorant of the main programmes taken up in the plans, 
Since the education process takes place in the classrooms, a trully effective 
educational plan cannot be prepared without the active involvement of 
teachers and cannot be implemented without their full and enthusiastic 
cooperation. It may therefore be said that this non-involvement of teachers 
in the preparation and implementation of educational plans is one of the 
major weaknesses in our system and unless it is effectively remedied, it will 
not be possible to promote the development of education in a big way. 

The principle that teachers should be actively involved in the formula- 
tion and implementation of education plans is unexceptionable and is 
accepted by all concerned. But its implementation in practice is held up 
on four main grounds. The first is that Government has never been keen 
to involve teachers effectively in educational planning and development. In 
fact, it has not even shown an awareness of the problem and its significance. 
Secondly, we have not yet been able to visualise and create the institutional 
machinery which will enable all teachers to effectively participate in the 
formulation and implementation of educational plans. Thirdly, there are 
several divisions in the ranks of the teachers which weaken the profession 
and diminish its capacity for active participation in this programme; and 
lastly, which the teachers themselves have shown, a general unconcern in 

problems of educational planning and development and have failed to 
develop the necessary expertise and leadership. All these four weaknesses 
will have to be overcome if teachers are to assume leadership in educational 
planning and development and thereby benefit education as well as improve 
their own status. 

The basic assumption made here is that both Government and teachers 
realise the significance of intimate and effective involvement of the academic 
community in programmes of educational planning and development and 
are keen to secure it. If this joint realisation and keenness does not exist, we 
have neither horse nor water. But supposing that both horse and water 
exist, how can we take the horse to water and make it drink ? It is this 
question to which I propose to give some tentative answers. 



The present system of educational planning is top heavy and resembles 
an inverted pyramid because most of the planning is done at the natio nal and 
state levels only. It is necessary to decentralise and broad-base this planning 
process by the preparation of plans at two other levels— district and institu- 
tion. The best results can be obtained only if an integrated process of plan- 
ning at these four levels is evolved and planning descends from the top as well 
as arises from below. 

/. Institutional planning : The base of this new planning process will be 
provided by institutional plans. I refuse to believe that one institu- 
tion can be just like any other. On the other hand, I think that 
each educational institution should have a unique personality of its 
own — like every individual student. The administrative system 
should therefore be such that each institution will be encouraged 
and assisted to plan its own individual development on the best 
lines possible. Such institutional plans will have several advantages. 
They emphasise programmes of qualitative improvement and, as 
these will have to be increasingly emphasised in the years ahead, 
institutional plans will have to be an inescapable component of the 
planning process of the future. They will make it possible to 
involve, not only teachers, but also parents and even students effecti- 
vely in the planning process ; and what is more important, they will 
provide adequate scope for initiative, creativity, freedom and experi- 


mentation by teachers.; They will also emphasise human effort 
rather than expenditure-orientation which our plans have acquired 
in the past. 

II. District , State and National Plans : It is time that in the preparation 
and implementation of the institutional plans, the leadership will 
mainly vest in the teachers themselves, and other authorities will 
play an assisting role. But in preparing and implementing plans at 
the district, state and national levels, the appropriate authorities will 
have to take the lead. For instance, the Zilla Parishads or the 
District School Boards recommended by the Education Commission 
will be responsible for preparation and implementation of district 
educational plans. Similarly, the state plans in education will be 
prepared and implemented by the State Governments and the State 
Education Departments while the national plans will be the responsi- 
bility of the Government of India and the Ministry of Education. 
But it is necessary to take adequate steps to ensure that the teachers 
are effectively associated in the preparation and implementation of 
education plans at these levels also. From this point of view, the 
following suggestions are put forward : — 

(1) The authorities responsible for preparation and implementation of 

district development plans in education should constitute Advisory 
Board Councils of Teachers on which all organisations of teachers 
functioning within the district will be represented. These councils 
should be consulted on all matters relating to planning and develop- 
ment of education. 

(2) Similarly, at the state level, the State Government should constitute 
Joint Teachers’ Councils consisting of the representatives of all the 
different organisations of teachers working in the State. These 
should be consulted on all matters relating to the salaries, conditions 
of work and service of teachers as well as on all matters relating to 
the planning and development of education. 

(3) The Ministry of Education, in its turn, should constitute a National 
Council of Teachers consisting of representatives of all teachers’ 
agronisations functioning at the national level. Its functions should 
be similar to those of the Joint Teachers’ Councils established at the 
state level and they should be effectively involved in preparation and 
implementation of educational plans. 




If the system of institutional planning is adopted as the foundation of 
the planning process and if the institutional machinery for consultation with 
teachers in planning and development of education is created at the district, 
state and national levels on the lines indicated in the preceding section, the 
teaching community as a whole will be effectively involved in the preparation 
and implementation of educational plans. These proposals have been based 
essentially on the recommendations made by the Education Commission; 
and it is hoped that these will soon be accepted by all the concerned 

The next important question which arises in this regard is whether the 
teaching community is at present in a position to assume the new responsi- 
bility. I have no doubts on this point. But I feel that the competence of 
the teaching community to assume this responsibility is considerably reduced 
by divisions within its ranks. The university teachers stand apart as a class 
by themselves. The headmasters of secondary schools from another group 
and the teachers of secondary schools also have separate organisations of 
their own. The primary teachers is again a separate group. There is at 
present very little inter-communication between these different groups and 
there are very few opportunities wherein they can work together for common 
ends and build up closer links between themselves. What is needed therefore 
is a programme or programmes which will help the teaching community to 
close up its ranks and to become a united teaching profession. This will 
immensely increase its authority and capacity to assist in the preparation 
and implementation of educational plans. In fact, if I were asked to name the 
most important single task to which the Indian teachers should address them- 
selves at this stage, I will say, with a slight variation of the Marxist mani- 
festo : “Teachers of all Categories ! Unite”. 

How can we create a unified teaching community in India ? This will 
essentially need two main programmes : 

(1) Changing of attitudes : The first is to bring about a change in' 
attitude which are often coloured by the relics of the old colonial 
tradition or by the caste system as reflected in education. The 
university teachers often behave as a superior class, the Brahmins of 
the profession, as it were. Even between them, they are further 
divided into different groups or sub-castes such as university 
teachers, college teachers, teachers in government colleges (who are 



themselves divided into groups like Class I, Class II, or non* 
gazetted), etc. The secondary teachers form a middle group, the 
Kshatriyas or Vaishyas of the profession. They generally regard 
themselves as superior to and keep themselves aloof from the 
primary teachers, while the college teachers towards whose status 
they aspire keep them at the similar respectable distance. The 
primary teachers, who are the largest group, form the Sudras of the 
system and are often treated as such in all respects. It is obvious 
that in the India of tomorrow which aspires to create a new social 
order based on justice, liberty, equality and the dignity of the 
individual, there is no place for such traditional and obsolete 
attitudes. All teachers belong to one community and are essentially 
equal and this feeling of brotherhood will have to be deliberately 
cultivated by all. 

(2) Institutional set-up : Changes in attitudes are difficult to be brought 
about or maintained over a period of time unless they are supported 
by appropriate institutional structures. If teachers of all categories 
are to cultivate a feeling of brotherhood, opportunities will have to 
be provided to them, through institutional structures of the proper 
type, to work with one another in common tasks and thereby to 
come to know and respect each other. In this context, it is interest- 
ing to note that the same structural organisation which has been 
recommended above for creating a broad-based system of educa- 
tional planning will also achieve the result of unifying the teaching 
profession. For instance, the system of school-complexes will 
provide opportunities for secondary school teachers to work with 
primary school teachers and for university and college teachers to 
work with secondary school teachers. Similarly, the establishment 
of District Teachers Councils, Joint Teachers’ Council at the State 
level, or the National Teachers Council at the all India level, on 
which organisations of teachers of all categories will be represented, 
will be another important means of enabling teachers of all cate- 
gories to work together for common ends. The same objective can 
also be attained by establishing Subject Teachers Associations. 
These will no doubt stimulate initiative and experimentation and 
assist in the revision and upgrading of curricula through the pro- 
vision of better teaching materials and the use of improved techni- 
ques of teaching and evaluation. But this will also have the ad- 
ditional advantage of bringing together, on a common platform, 
teachers of all stages from pre-primary to the post-graduate. 

Such associations should be formed ar the district, state and nati- 
onal levels. 

The Education Commission has recommended that universities should 
be involved intensively in programmes of improving school education 
through research, improvement of curricula, discovery of new methods of 
teaching and evaluation, training of teachers, discovery and development 
of talent and preparation of textbooks and other teaching and learning 
materials. This programme will provide opportunities to university teachers 
to work in close collaboration with teachers at all other levels. 



While this unity of teaching profession is a valuable strength which the 
teachers should cultivate to enable them to provide leadership in educational 
planning and development, it is not enough to meet the challenge of the 
situation. The teachers have to develop both interest and competence in the 
programme. It is unfortunate that teachers have so far neglected this im- 
portant subject and not much interest has been evinced by the teachers’ or- 
ganisations in the three Five Year Plans and in the three Annual Plans. They 
have not even criticised them either in depth or in a comprehensive manner 
while what is expected of them is not mere criticism but, if necessary, even 
the formulation of an alternative plan which the public can compare with the 
official plan and judge for itself. It is obvious that this apathy will have 
to be abandoned, the sooner the better, and that teachers will have to show, 
as 1 stated earlier, much greater interest in educational planning and devel- 
opment than what they have done so far. 

Similarly, the teachers will have to develop the necessary competence in 
educational planning, both individually and through their organisations. It is 
true that this competence will grow as the decentralised programme described 
in the preceding section is evolved and teachers are actually involved inten- 
sively in the formulation and implementation of educational plans. But 
some formal and institutional attempts to the same end are also needed. 
For instance, the subject of educational planning and the problems of 
Indian education should find a place in the curricula of all training institu- 
tions at all levels. The teacher educators should be properly prepared for 
developing these programmes in their institutions at all levels and the neces- 
sary literature oh the subject should be prepared in all the modern Indian 



languages. There should be at least a few centres where advanced level 
courses in educational planning will be provided at the post-graduate 
stage ; moreover, the teachers’ organisations should set up working groups to 
study the subject and to educate the teaching community on all its aspects. 
As in Western countries, the teachers organisations should conduct research 
and bring out publications and journals on educational planning and such 
efforts should receive encouragement and assistance from the State. 



The main thesis that I have tried to put forward in this address is that 
it is necessary to involve teachers effectively in the formulation and imple- 
mentation of educational plans if we have to achieve better success in educa- 
tional development than what has been possible in the last eighteen years 
and especially if the programme of qualitative improvement of education are 
to be increasingly emphasised. I further stated that, in order to involve 
teachers in these programmes, it is necessary to adopt a decentralised and 
broad-based planning process which would include planning at the institu- 
tional, district, state and national levels, and to create appropriate teachers’ 
organisations at the district, state and national levels for consultation on all 
matters of educational development, l further emphasised that the capacity 
of the teachers to assume these responsibilities in the formulation and imple- 
mentation of educational plans will be considerably increased if the teachers 
close up their ranks and become a unified community, if they take deeper 
and more sustained interest in problems of educational development and if 
they also strive to develop the expertise needed for the purpose. 

I will now close on a note of appeal. The participation of teachers in 
the formulation and implementation of educational plans can yield rich 
dividends, especially in programmes of qualitative improvement. Several of 
these programmes such as improvement of textbooks, adoption of better 
methods of teaching and evaluation, intensive utilisation of available facili- 
ties, maintaining contact with the community, individual guidance to 
students, inculcation of social and moral values, etc. do not need much 
investment in physical or monetary terms. But their success depends essen- 
tially upon the competence of teachers, their sense of dedication and their 
identification with the interests of the students committed to their care. But 
unless we make every effort to cultivate these skills and values, we shall not 

be able to participate effectively in educational planning and to discharge our 
responsiblilities to education and society. As Dr. D.R. Gadgil observes : 

“Qualitative improvement in education whether we look upon it'as 
a matter of better textbooks, improved teaching methods, or exami- 
nation reform depends to some extent on additional resources pro- 
perly employed but to a larger extent on the ability and sincerity of 
teachers. Even where the teacher student ratio, for example, may 
not be unfavourable, without special effort on the part of teachers, 
teaching methods cannot improve or the student enthused or self- 
disciplined. Experiments such as with internal assessment by insti- 
tutions for even part of the examination have everywhere emphasi- 
sed the same aspects and brought about the same deficiencies. It 
is not so much the resources as objectivity and a certain professional 
rectitude on the part of teachers and heads of institutions that seem 
to be required most in this behalf. Whereas, therefore, I would 
emphasise the need to attain a proper teacher- student ratio and to 
maintain minimum standards of accommodation and equipment, I 
would like to emphasise at least equally the importance of general 
acceptance of certain academic values and professional standards by 
the body of teachers at all stages of education — elementary, 
secondary and collegiate.” 

(From the Address given by Sri J.P. Naik to the Conference of Educa- 
tion Secretaries of States and Union Territories held at New Delhi on 
March 18-20, 1968) 

Publications under thb Indian Programme 

1. Educational Planning in a District byJ. ~P.Nafk 

2. Institutional Planning byj. P. Naik 

3. School Improvement Projects and Community Support 

by N. D. Sundaravadivelu 

4. Programmes of Educational Improvement 

at the District Level by M. V. Rajagopal